Do not eat regular bread during the week of Passover.
First Day of Pesach
On the first day of Passover/Pesach, the Torah reading (Exodus 12:21-51) includes tenth plague in Egypt, the death of the firstborn. Moses tells the Israelites what each household must do on that day: slaughter a sheep and paint its blood around the door, so death will pass over their house.
Night falls while the Israelites are eating their slaughtered sheep. The firstborn child in every house without blood around the door dies. In the middle of the night Pharaoh and the other Egyptians urge the Israelites to leave the country at once, with no conditions. The Israelites march away in the morning, taking all their livestock; some gold and silver the Egyptians “loan” them; and some household items, including bread dough and kneading troughs. When they camp on the first night of their journey,
They baked the dough that they had brought out from Egypt as cakes of matzot, because it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and they were unable to tarry; and also they had not made provisions for themselves. (Exodus 12:39)
matzot (מַצּוֹת) = plural of matzah (מַצָּה) = unleavened bread; a flat “loaf” of flour and water baked before any sourdough can make it rise.
Every year we read this specious reason for eating matzah during Passover, in the haggadah (script) for the seder (ritual meal) as well as in the Torah. And every year I sigh with impatience.
People in the ancient Near East used sourdough, not yeast, to leaven their bread. It takes about a week to make new sourdough starter and gradually add enough flour and water to do some baking. So for thousands of years bakers have kept sourdough starter going in their kitchens.
A family packing hurriedly to leave the country might bring dry flour and a jar of sourdough starter. Or they might bring dough that was already rising in preparation for baking later in the day. But who would mix some flour with water and bring the damp lump without adding any of the sourdough starter right there on the shelf?
Saying that we eat only unleavened bread during the week of Pesach because our ancestors had no time to prepare leavened bread is an explanation that some young children enjoy. But it has never satisfied me.
Last Day of Pesach
On the last day of the week of Pesach, the Torah reading is Deuteronomy 15:19-16:17, which combines eating the slaughter offering with eating the matzah, and adds some new details to the Pesach observance.
Observe the month of the green grain,1 and make the Pesach offering to God, your God, because in the month of the green grain God, your God, brought you out of Egypt at night. You shall slaughter Pesach offerings from the flock and from the herd for God, your God, in the place where God chooses to make [God’s] name dwell. You shall not eat leaven with it. Seven days you shall eat it with matzot, the bread of wretchedness, because in a hasty flight you went out from the land of Egypt. On account of [eating matzot], you shall remember the day you went out from the land of Egypt all the days of your life. (Deuteronomy/Devarim 16:1-3)
Here the purpose of eating both the animal offering and the matzot for a week is to remember the exodus from Egypt. In Deuteronomy, we must do this at the temple, with everyone else who has come for the pilgrimage.
This passage adds that matzah is the bread of wretchedness,2 a statement repeated during the Pesach seder.3 Eating matzah reminds us of our own wretchedness and our inability to rise by our own efforts when we were in Egypt.
The hard labor imposed on the Israelites enslaved in Egypt gave them “shortness of breath” (or “shortness of spirit”; both translations are legitimate) so they could not listen to Moses talking about liberation.4 They could only cry bitterly, until God created the ten miraculous disasters that finally persuaded even the Pharaoh to let them leave Egypt.
We eat matzah during Pesach to remember that any freedom we have now is due to God’s compassion for us.
In the first century C.E. Philo of Alexandria initiated an explanation for eating matzah that we still repeat at many seders today: that leavening makes bread puff up like an arrogant person. Eating flat matzah is a reminder of our humility before God.5
Pesach and Leviticus
This year another explanation for eating matzah occurred to me. After reading about the matzot burned on the altar in various types of offerings to God in the first two Torah portions of Leviticus/Vayikra, I noticed that whenever the people make a grain offering6 to God, it is always unleavened.
The first Torah portion in the book of Leviticus/Vayikra describes several acceptable types of afternoon grain offerings. The first is:
… wheat flour; and he shall pour oil over it and place frankincense upon it. And he shall bring it to the sons of Aaron, the priests, and one shall scoop from it … a memorial portion on the altar, a fire-offering, a fragrant aroma for God. (Leviticus/Vayikra 2:1-2)
The Torah then describes four ways to cook the grain before offering it to God on the altar. The mixture of flour and oil can be baked into matzot “loaves”, or into flat wafers. It can be fried on a griddle, or cooked as soft dough in a pot. But it must always be sprinkled with frankincense and salt before the priest breaks off a piece and lays it on the altar to burn up into smoke. Furthermore, the grain offering must never be allowed to rise, and it must never include fruit syrup.
Any grain offering that you offer to God you shall not make leavened, for you must not make any sourdough or any syrup go up in smoke with a fire-offering for God. You shall offer those to God as an offering of first-fruits, but they shall not be upon the altar, nor go up as a fragrant aroma. (Leviticus 2:11-12)
Later the Torah describes the annual offering of first-fruits (and optional fruit syrups) on the holiday of Shavuot, which also prescribes an offering of two loaves of leavened bread from each pilgrim. These offerings are presented to the priests at the sanctuary, but no part of them is burned on the altar for God.
Grain is also part of the wholeness-offering, given to express thanks or fulfill a pledge. Besides slaughtering an animal at the altar, the donor brings:
… loaves of matzot mixed with oil, and wafers of matzot anointed with oil, and toasted flour mixed with oil. Along with loaves of leavened bread, he shall offering his offering with his wholeness slaughter-offering. (Leviticus 7:11-13)
Portions of the sacrificial animal and the unleavened grain offerings are burned on the altar. But the leavened bread is all eaten by human beings: the officiating priest and the donor and his guests. None of it is turned into smoke for God.
This means that during the week of Passover, we eat only the kind of grain that can be offered to God. We remember that major transformations in our lives happen only by the grace of God, but we also, in effect, share bread with God.
Why? In the Torah portion that comes after Pesach this year, Kedoshim, God declares:
You shall be holy, because I, God, your God, am holy. (Leviticus 19:3)
Holiness is not a feeling in the Torah; the portion Kedoshim follows up that statement with a list of holy actions to take, both ethical and ritual. But perhaps, when we eat matzah, we might remember we are eating the bread of God. Maybe if that makes us feel more holy, we will act in a more holy way. We will love our neighbor as ourselves (Leviticus 19:18) and share our food with the hungry (Pesach Haggadah).
- Aviv (אָבִיב) = green ears of grain; the first month of spring, later renamed Nissan in Hebrew.
- The Hebrew word is oni (עָני) = wretchedness, misery, poverty.
- In the Haggadah, matzah is called “ha-lachma anya”, an Aramaic phrase that means “the bread of wretchedness”.
- Exodus 6:9.
- See my post Pesach: Being Unleavened, Part 2.
- The afternoon grain offering is the minchah (מִנחָה)= allegiance-offering; a gift to a king as a sign of homage or respect; tribute. See my post Vayikra & Tzav: Fire Offerings Without Slaughter, Part 2.