Ezekiel & Psalm 46: Desist!

January 23, 2019 at 11:21 pm | Posted in Ezekiel, Psalms/Tehilim | 2 Comments

Desist!  And know that I am Elohim.  (Psalm 46:11)

Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים) = God; gods in general.

The phrase “know that I am God” appears nine times in the book of Exodus, but it always uses God’s personal name (whose four letters approximate Y-H-V-H) instead of Elohim.  God wants Egyptians and Israelites to know the identity of the god who creates the miracles they witness.  (See my post Beshallach & Shemot: Knowing the Name.)

Ezekiel, by Michelangelo

In the book of Ezekiel, the phrase “know that I am God” appears more than 50 times using God’s personal name.  The book opens in the settlement near Babylon where the prophet Ezekiel was deported during King Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of the southern Israelite kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE.   Jerusalem, the only remaining Israelite city, is still under siege.1  Its people are suffering—and it is their own fault, according to Ezekiel.  They enraged God by worshiping idols, so God sent famine, pestilence, and the Babylonian army to destroy them.  The losing side in a war, according to Ezekiel, is the side that made God angry.

Then you shall know that I am Y-H-V-H, whose decrees you did not follow, and whose laws you did not do; you did according to the laws of the nations that surrounded you.  (Ezekiel 11:12)

At least 25 times Ezekiel prophesies that the surviving Israelites will realize their guilt and “know that I am Y-H-V-H”.2

Ezekiel also declares that God will send Babylonians to conquer Ammon, Moab, Philistia, Tyre, Egypt, and Edom because none of these nations tried to help the Israelites.  Then their people, too, “shall know that I am Y-H-V-H”.3

Valley of the Dry Bones, by Gustave Dore, 1866

But eventually God will forgive the deportees from Judah, reestablish the covenant with them, and return them to Jerusalem.  Ezekiel prophesies seven times that when God stops punishing the people and repopulates Jerusalem, the Israelites “shall know that I am Y-H-V-H”.4

In the distant future, the prophet says, the vast armies of Gog from Magog and his allies will invade the hills of Israel, and God will defeat them both by creating natural disasters (earthquake, pestilence, hail) and by making Gog and his allies turn on each other.5

“Thus I shall manifest my greatness and my holiness, and make myself known in the eyes of many nations.  And they shall know that I am Y-H-V-H”.  (Ezekiel 38:3)

In Ezekiel, people recognize Y-H-V-H only after a human army is wiped out.

*

In Psalm 46 people recognize God when God puts an end to war.  The song begins:

View of Fortress on a Hill, detail, by Augustin Hirschvogel, 1546

Elohim is for us a refuge and a stronghold,

            A help in dire straits, very accessible.

Therefore we are not afraid when the earth is transformed,

            When mountains collapse into the heart of the seas,

Its waters roar and foam,

            The mountains quake in its surge.  Selah.  (Psalm 46:2-4)

Some commentators have claimed that the upheavals of earth and sea are a metaphor for the violence of warring nations expected at the end of history, i.e. the war of Gog prophesied by Ezekiel.6  Others take this first section of the song so literally that they date the psalm according to an earthquake that occurred two centuries before the time of Ezekiel.7   A third interpretation is that God is responsible for all natural disasters, from floods to earthquakes, and that God will protect devout Israelites even while God is inflicting these “acts of God” on others.8

The first part of the psalm ends with the ancient Hebrew word Selah, a musical instruction whose meaning is unknown.  The second part presents an image of joy and stability in the “city of Elohim where God dwells on earth, in contrast with the chaos around it.9  This section ends with another Selah.  Then the psalmist says:

Go perceive the marvelous acts of Y-H-V-H;

            Who puts frightful devastations on the earth,

Stopping wars to the edge of the earth,

            breaking a bow and cutting up a spear,

            flaming [war] wagons with fire.

“Desist!  And know that I am Elohim.

            “I am higher than the nations,

            “I am higher than the earth.”  (Psalm 46:9-11)

This last part of Psalm 46 may be a prediction that someday God, who initiates natural disasters, will cause humans to desist from war over the entire earth.  In other words, when all humans know that Elohim is still active in nature, we will stop fighting and have world peace.

Biblical commentators usually follow Ezekiel in assuming that world peace will happen only after the defeat of Gog from Magog and the end of history, when messianic time begins.

But I believe we cannot wait for the legendary armies of Gog.  Groups of humans from families to nations have been fighting each other not only with wars, but also by exercising their own power without pity for any other creatures, human or not.  Now we are beginning to suffer from world-wide natural disasters, otherwise known as global climate change.

Can we stop fighting and making heartless power plays?  Can we change our own human natures, and rescue whoever and whatever can be rescued all over the earth?

I pray that God will inspire even the most intransigent hearts to “Desist!  And know that I am Elohim”, the divinity in all of nature, including ourselves.

  1. The people known collectively as Israelites in the Hebrew Bible had two kingdoms, the northern kingdom of Israel with its capitol in Samaria, and the southern kingdom of Judah with its capitol in Jerusalem, until the Assyrian Empire conquered the northern kingdom circa 720 BCE. The Babylonian Empire took over the Assyrian Empire circa 605 BCE, conquered most the kingdom of Judah, and besieged Jerusalem on and off from 605 BCE until it fell in 586 BCE.  Leading Israelites from Jerusalem and Judah were deported from 597 BCE to as late as 581 BCE.
  2. Ezekiel 6:7, 6:10, 6:13, 6:14, 7:4, 7:27, 11:10, 11:12, 12:15, 12:16, 12:20, 13:9, 13:14, 13:21, 13:23, 14:8, 15:7, 20:38, 20:26, 20:44, 22:16, 23:49, 24:4, 24:27, 33:29.
  3. Ezekiel 25:5, 25:7 regarding Ammon; 25:11 regarding Moab; 5:17 regarding Philistines; 26:6 regarding Tyre; 29:6, 29:9, 29:16, 29:21, 30:8, 30:19, 30:25, 30:26, and 32:15 regarding Egypt; 35:4, 35:9, and 35:15 regarding Edom (Mt. Seir); and 36:23 regarding “the nations” in general.
  4. In Ezekiel 16:62, 20:20, 20:42, 34:27, and 36:38, God will accept the repentance of the surviving Jerusalemites who were deported to Babylon, renew the old covenant, and return them to their land. In Ezekiel 37:6 and 37:13, God will (at least metaphorically) bring the dry bones of the slain back to life.
  5. Ezekiel 38:19-22. Ezekiel adds that the Israelites will “know that I am Y-H-V-H” in 39:22 and 39:28.
  6. g. Radak (12th-13th century Rabbi David Kimchi): “At the time when the mountains quake and collapse and the waters of the sea are stirred up, that is to say—when there will be great distress and war between the kingdoms of the nations, Israel will not be afraid but instead will rejoice.  This is what is said in a metaphorical fashion…”  (Sefaria translation, www.sefaria.org/Radak_on_Psalms.46. )
  7. The earthquake mentioned in Amos 1:1 occurred circa 750 BCE. See Robert Alter, The Book of Psalms, W. Norton & Co., New York, 2007, p. 162; and Arie Folger, “Understanding Psalm 46”, Jewish Bible Quarterly, http://jbq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/411/jbq411psalm46folger.pdf.  Rashi (11th-century rabbi Shlomoh Yitzchaki) cites Numbers 16:31-32, where the earth swallows people, but the descriptions there sounds more like a sudden sinkhole than an earthquake.
  8. Folger, ibid.
  9. Psalm 46:5-7.

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2 Comments »

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  1. You have become a psalm reader!

  2. Yes, but not a bible thumper.


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