Pesach (פֶּסַח, “skipping”) means Passover. Seder (סֵדֶר, “order”) means the dinner table ritual following the order in the Haggadah. Haggadah (הַגָּדָה, “the telling”—a term that came into use in the 19th century) means the book of rituals, prayers, questions, four cups of wine, and stories. The longest story, told while the second cup of wine sits on the table, is about the exodus from Egypt, up to the point when the pursuing Egyptian army drowns in the Reed Sea, and the newly-freed slaves celebrate on the far shore.
In the book of Exodus, Moses led the people in celebrating by singing a lengthy psalm.1
Then Miriam the neviyah, the sister of Aaron, took the drum in her hand, and all the women went out after her, with drums and with circle-dances. And Miriam chanted for them:
Sing to God, for He is high above the high;
horse and its rider He hurled into the sea. (Exodus/Shemot 15:20-21)
neviyah (נְבִיאָה) = prophetess (the feminine form of navi (נָבִיא) = prophet).
Miriam is the first woman in the Torah to be called a neviyah. She leads the women in singing as well as in tapping hand drums and dancing.2
Miriam is a character in three dramatic scenes in the Torah. She is the resourceful young woman who, when the pharaoh’s daughter adopts her infant brother Moses, arranges for their own mother to be his paid wet-nurse.3 She is the leader of thousands of women in the scene above. And later in the trek across the wilderness, she leads her brother Aaron in a joint complaint regarding Moses’ wife. (See my post Beha-alotkha: Unnatural Skin.) The two siblings point out that they are prophets, too:
“Has God spoken only with Moses? Hasn’t He also spoken with us?” And God heard. (Numbers/Bemidbar 12:2)
God calls Miriam, Aaron, and Moses to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and speaks to all three from the pillar of cloud—in order to tell them that Moses gets the most direct divine communication.
And [God] said: “Please listen to my words! When there is a navi of God among you, I make myself known to him in a vision; I speak with him in a dream. Not so my servant Moses … I speak with him mouth to mouth, and in seeing, not in riddles, and he looks at the likeness of God. (Numbers 12:6-8)
God afflicts Miriam with a temporary skin disease to underscore the point. Nevertheless, in that scene Miriam is indeed a neviyah who hears God’s voice directly!
Miriam is mentioned in passing five times after this, including God’s speech in the book of Micah reminding the Israelites that God sent them three leaders for the exodus from Egypt: Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. 4
What is a navi or neviyah? The Torah offers several paradigms.
The word navi first appears in the book of Genesis, when God tells King Avimelekh in a dream: “And now, return the wife of [Abraham], since he is a navi, and he can pray for you and you will live.” (Genesis 20.7)
Moses, Samuel, Elijah, Elisha, and an unnamed prophet in the first book of Kings are also prophets who have God’s ear and intercede with God to save other people.5
The Torah introduces a second paradigm of a navi after the enslaved Israelites give up on Moses’ idea that God will liberate them. When God tells Moses to speak to Pharaoh next, he tries to get out it, arguing that he has “uncircumcised lips”, i.e. he cannot speak well.6 But God has an answer for everything.
Then God said to Moses: “See, I place you as a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother will be your navi.” (Exodus 7:1)
In other words, Aaron will act like a navi for Moses, hearing Moses speak and then passing on Moses’ words to the Egyptian court. Obviously Moses is God’s navi, hearing God speak and passing on God’s words, though the Torah does not bother to say so until the end of Deuteronomy: And never again in Israel rose a navi like Moses, who knew God face to face. (Deuteronomy 34:10)
Moses and God have the longest, most frequent, and most direct conversations in the entire Hebrew Bible. After Moses gets over his initial reluctance to speak, he fluently delivers God’s instructions, warnings, and hundreds of rules.7
Other prophets transmit God’s predictions, or warnings, about the future of kings or kingdoms if they do not change their ways. These include all the major prophets (Isaiah through Malachi).
The third kind of navi in the Hebrew Bible is one who goes into an altered state of consciousness characterized by an awareness of the divine and obliviousness to the world, and who does not return with any coherent message from God. The first occurrence of this state in the Torah is when God shares some of Moses’ spirit or ruach with 70 elders.
And the spirit was upon them, vayitnabe-u, but they did not continue. (Numbers 11:25)
vayitnabe-u (וַיּתְנַבְּאוּ) = and they acted like prophets, and they prophesied to themselves, and they spoke in ecstasy. (From the same נבא root as navi.)
In both books of Samuel and both books of Kings, bands of prophets wander around making music, dancing, and babbling. The bible explains the proverb “Is Saul, too, among the prophets?” first with a scene in which King Saul falls in with a band of prophets on the road and speaks in ecstasy like them, then with a scene in which not only babbles, but also strips naked.8
Miraim is the first of only five women called prophets in the Hebrew Bible. After her, two major prophetesses are spokespersons for God (type 2 above): Deborah, who summons a general and tells him to go to war;9 and Huldah, who authenticates a scroll as the word of God and utters two prophetic predictions.10 Two other prophetesses are mentioned only glancingly.11
Miriam is the only neviyah whom the bible reports as engaging in what might be ecstatic behavior: playing a drum, dancing, and singing on the shore of the Reed Sea. But Miriam leads circle dances in complicated patterns that require concentration and planning. She leads a coherent chant. Rather than directing ecstatic worship, she is probably organizing a celebration of God as the victor in a war against the Egyptian charioteers. Women customarily greeted soldiers returned from a victory with drumming, dancing, and singing.12
Although Miriam hears God’s voice, the Torah does not report her serving as either an intercessor or a spokesperson for God.
The Talmud attempts to fill the void by claiming that Miriam did pronounce a prophecy: that her mother would have a son who would save the Israelites from Egypt. When Moses was born, according to this story, the whole house filled with light, and Miriam’s father exclaimed that his daughter’s prophecy had been fulfilled.13 This is a pleasant tale with no basis in the Torah.
A modern folk explanation is that Miriam must have had foreknowledge of the victory at the Reed Sea, and told the women to bring their drums. Otherwise they would not have bothered to pack them, since they left their homes in Egypt in such a hurry that the dough had no time to rise in their kneading-troughs.14
This argument for Miriam’s power as a neviyah fails in the context of the larger story in Exodus. The Israelite women were already packing all the gold, silver, jewelry, and clothing they “borrowed” from the Egyptians; they could easily add their hand drums and any their other sentimental and ritual objects.
Miriam may be called a neviyah because of other deeds not recorded in the bible. Or she may simply be an exceptional person who has a close relationship with God.
A traditional Passover seder includes pouring a cup of wine for Elijah the navi. Many a modern seder adds a ritual cup of water for Miriam the neviah. (The water alludes to a Talmudic story that says a well of water followed the Israelites through the wilderness for 40 years thanks to the merit of Miriam.15)
I lift a cup for Miriam at Passover knowing that she may not be a neviyah in the sense of being an intercessor with God, a spokesperson for God, or a religious ecstatic. I celebrate her lifelong wise leadership, and her ability to listen to God. May we all learn to be a little more like Miriam the neviyah.
- Exodus 15:1-18. See my post Beshallach & Psalm 136: Miracle at Sea.
- Since the two lines of Miriam’s song are the same as the first two lines of the psalm ascribed to Moses, the women might sing them as a periodic refrain during the longer psalm. Most modern scholars consider either the entire psalm, or at least Miriam’s song, to be one of the oldest poems in the Torah (based on Frank M. Cross and David N. Freedman, Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI, 1973).
- Exodus 2:4-8.
- When she dies in Numbers 20:1; in two genealogies listing her with her brothers Aaron and Moses, Numbers 26:59 and 1 Chronicles 5:29; in a warning about skin disease in Deuteronomy 24:9, and in Micah 6:3-4.
- Moses for the Israelite people in Exodus 32:9-14, Exodus 33:12-17, Numbers 11:1-2, and Numbers 21:6-9, and for Miriam in Numbers 12:10-15; Samuel for the Israelites in 7:5-10; Elijah to bring a dead boy back to life in 1 Kings 17:20-24; Elisha for the same reason in 2 Kings 4:8-37; an unnamed prophet for King Jereboam in 1 Kings 13:1-6.
- Exodus 6:12, 6:30. See my post Va-eria & Shemot: Uncircumcised, Part 2.
- The Talmud (Makkot 23b and Yevamot 47b) claims there are 613 commandments in the Torah. It is hard to decide which rules should count, but 10th-century C.E. rabbi Saadiah ben Yosef Gaon found a way to list 613 in his Sefer Hamitzvot, and Maimonides (12th-century C.E. rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, nicknamed Rambam) came up with 613 for his book by the same name.
- 1 Samuel 10:10-12 and 19:18-24.
- Judges 4:4-16.
- 2 Kings 22:14-20.
- The unnamed wife of the first Isaiah (Isaiah 8:3) and Noadeyah, a false neviyah listed in Nehemiah 6:14.
- Judges 11:34, 1 Samuel 18:6-7.
- Talmud Bavli Megillah 14a.
- Exodus 12:34.
- Talmud Bavli Taanit 9a.